Paralympic sport has come a long way from its humble beginnings at the Stoke Mandeville spinal cord injury unit in England just after the Second World War. This small sporting event, which at the time used competition between those with similar injuries to assist the rehabilitation of wheelchair users, is now a worldwide phenomenon. The movement now boasts a 4 yearly event working in conjunction, and very much on a par, with the Olympic Games. In addition many of the individual sports have their own international sporting events governed by the IPC (International Paralympic Committee) and run separate international event calendars. Competitors in these events are often household names and on many occasions able bodied and para sports run events alongside each other as is currently happening with the IPC para athletics championship in London. The transformation of disability sports has been amazing as has its influence on the quality of the lives of disabled people in general over the same time frame. However in more recent years is the direction of movement for those involved in para sport the correct one? Is it time we had a serious and perhaps difficult conversation about who benefits and who doesn’t from how things have changed with Paralympic sport? Are we still helping those who the movement was set up to help? And while the success of the movement in general is a really good thing, do the inevitable commercial pressures of this success actually have some negative impacts on inclusion and participation of those with disabilities? There are a number of areas in relation to this that could be discussed, however I would like primarily to give my thoughts on what I see as the direction of travel of the Paralympic movement. Are we seeing those with more severe disabilities losing out to those with less severe disabilities? Is there enough representation for those who are much further from having fully working bodies than those who have smaller impairments and if so, why is this? I will move onto my thoughts around this subject later in the article but to begin with I think it might also be worth discussing another area – classification, to understand more about what is happening. Importantly I don’t want this article to be a criticism of the Paralympics and para sport itself, governing bodies within it or individuals (athletes or otherwise). What I do want to do is begin a discussion about where we think it should be going in the future. This discussion might be difficult to hear but I think it is one that ultimately needs to take place, and take place now.
Before I let you know about my thoughts on all this, a bit of background on me would probably help. I have a C5/6 incomplete spinal cord injury and I live in the UK. Over many years I have competed to a decent level in wheelchair rugby and wheelchair racing and I have also been involved in other disability sports. I can only speak from my personal experience and from knowledge gained from others I have met in that time. Although I have been selected to represent team GB in the past I want to make it clear I am not writing this out of frustration for not being selected for my national squad for any particular event – I wasn’t where I needed to be in the world rankings for my classification to achieve selection and I understand that.
Classification adjustments and the knock on effect.
Classification is always going to be a difficult area and will always have controversy around it. There has been some controversy regarding Paralympic classification in recent times. It is a situation pretty much exclusive to the disability sport movement and is there for a very good reason. It was designed to allow people of a similar physical ability to compete against others with roughly the same physical ability. It is not a perfect system and there will always be those who benefit from being at the top end of a particular classification bracket and also those who may find it harder as they find themselves in the lower end of that bracket. I have been participating in disability sport for well over a decade now. I am by no means an expert in classification so all I aim to do here is bring up some topics for discussion around disability classification. I will begin with some of my own thoughts and experiences of classification in the sports I have played over the years.
My view is that in both wheelchair rugby and track racing over the last few Paralympic games, those with more severe impairment have been squeezed out the bottom of the sports they love by different disability types and borderline classification calls gradually raising the bar of who they can actually compete with. My category in racing – T52 is a mixed disability classification in which athletes who exhibit similar muscle strength and movement compete together. In recent years the classification boundary has moved a little which has allowed athletes with different disability types but who still exhibit similar muscle strength to enter our category when they would previously have been in the category above us. Many of these new athletes are great athletes, nice people and good friends of mine. It is not their fault that they have been categorised the way they have and on the surface they exhibit very similar muscle activity to others in this classification. However when you look more closely there are other differences that are important in addition to muscle strength which means things are not necessarily a level playing field. For example those with a higher level spinal cord injury (a neck injury rather than a back injury) cannot elevate their blood pressure and heart rate to the same extent as a non spinal cord injured athlete with the same muscle strength. There is a direct relationship between athletic performance and elevation of blood pressure and heart rate. An athlete with the same body function and fitness but who’s heart rate and blood pressure is restricted due to their disability type will not achieve the same output as one who is not restricted in this way. I understand that athletes of all disability types also need the opportunity to race in a category that is appropriate for their disability. My concern is the knock on effect of adding more and more athletes to the top end of classification boundaries and how this affects those sports and who can compete in them in the long term.
I believe this has also happened in wheelchair rugby. When I began playing wheelchair rugby it was a sport nearly exclusively played by those with spinal injuries. In fact it was invented by quadriplegic wheelchair users in Canada as they found it difficult to take part in wheelchair basketball due to their lack of hand function and strength. Classification for wheelchair rugby players ranges between 3.5 and 0.5 points and a team is made up of 4 players totalling no more than 8 points. When I was first classified as a wheelchair rugby player I began as a 3.0 point review player which after a few years dropped to a 2.5 point player. If I was classified now I would most likely come out as a 2.0 pointer. The extent of my disability has not changed much in this time but the classification boundaries have slightly shifted. Many players who would previously have been considered “too able” to play are now playing as higher point players which has a knock on effect throughout the whole classification system. In many seemingly positive ways this makes the game look faster, more dynamic and exciting and adds to the diversity of which disability types can play the game but this also has negative consequences. These classification adjustments have meant that the previous high point players are now mid-point players, those mid-point players are now lower point players. The problem with this is that those who were previously the lower point players, the 1.0 and 0.5 pointers, the ones who struggle the most to find competitive sports to play, now struggle to compete at all. Where do they go, what sport do they play? This was a sport set up specifically for those who, through no fault of their own or lack of training, were unable to compete at basketball. Where do these dedicated athletes go in terms of sport when they are getting pushed out the bottom end of the sport that was designed for them? I wanted to highlight some of the issues I have noticed in classification as it has implications for Paralympic sport in general. It’s not an obvious and rapid change and some may say that as disabled athletes train harder and techniques and equipment improve this movement of classification boundaries will naturally shift slightly. However I disagree. I think it is more than this and I do believe it is a cause, or perhaps a symptom, of a trend in disability sport moving in this direction. In my mind the Paralympic movement was set up to give sport to those who could not play it with able bodied competitors. Those who had no chance to even play, yet alone compete with, able bodied athletes then had sports and organisations enabling them to do one of the major things they desired to do – compete, with others like them.
A shift in athlete recruitment.
I have noticed a shift recently towards sports finding people with minor impairments who are already playing alongside able bodied competitors and didn’t previously consider themselves “disabled” and recruiting them into para sport. Much as I fully welcome inclusion it seems like much more of this has been happening recently and I don’t think it is the direction we should be going in. Many sports seem more intent on finding people with very minor disabilities who are currently quite happy being involved in the sports they were already managing to take part in and making them great Paralympians. These people are already involved in sport and are active and healthy because of it. Whereas what I think should be happening is that the people who are currently struggling to take part in sport due to their disability are encouraged to participate and have opportunity to compete to a high level if they decide to and show the ability to do so. Much as there is value in elevating those with minor impairment to compete with others in similar positions, it really only serves to win medals and therefore funding for national squads. I don’t want to single out particular sports but as an example the recent British para rowing recruiting video did actually say words to the effect of “you may only have a slight impairment or not consider yourself disabled but you may still qualify for para rowing”. I completely see why this needs to be said as GB rowing wants to win lots of medals, as do other sports. However I am concerned as there are a limited number of sports and events at any Paralympic games. There are some sports and events that are for athletes with very minimal disabilities or impairments that many would argue are taking away possible events for those with more severe disabilities who are just simply not able to compete at all if their events are not included. Some impairments allow athletes to compete very easily with their able bodied counterparts and tough as the question may be, we need to ask if these sports should actually be included in a paralympic games? I am not an expert, and I understand this directly affects some athletes currently competing, which sounds like I am being unfair to them. However, in my mind if you have, for example, a minor upper limb amputation or your eye sight is affected but you can still see the lines on the track, you can still compete with able bodied runners (particularly over long distance), throw a javelin, or do the long jump. These athletes who are much less affected by their disabilities do often produce events that can look visually more exciting. The athletes look more like the stereotypical view of an able bodied Olympian. They are often much easier to sell to the media. Their bodies and the way they move are more similar to what an untrained able bodied viewer would be used to seeing in athletic competition. But those with a greater degree of impairment train just as hard, struggle to overcome the odds just as much and deserve as much, if not more, opportunity to demonstrate to the world their physical prowess in competition as anyone else. As new sports and new events fight their way into para sport and the Paralympic games, are we allowing too many sports and events for those with minor impairment? At every games there are limits to the amount of medals on offer and when a sport or event is added it doesn’t mean there are more events, it just means that some others get pushed out. Inclusion is great but when inclusion for those with minor impairment means fewer events for those with more significant impairment that actually becomes exclusion! That exclusion is also at the expense of those who should benefit from inclusion the most.
There is an understandable temptation for national sporting bodies to pick less disabled medal hopes over equally likely medal hope but more disabled athletes. It is unfortunate but true that it is easier and more cost effective to transport and accommodate the needs of someone with a minor disability than someone with a more severe disability. I believe that there are times when the full support they need is not given to athletes with higher disabilities levels because of cost implications. I believe this may be happening in developed countries national bodies when money is less of an issue, so is much more likely to be happening in places where finance for para sport is a larger issue. If you base funding on medals and you have limited resources to get those medals economics dictates you will spend those resources on the cheaper way to get medals. If there is equal opportunity for medals between 2 athletes, the “less disabled” athlete is the easier and cheaper one to select for the same medal opportunity. This sadly can be a more tempting prospect for National selectors. But when this happens it is at the expense of individual athletes with severe disabilities within all sports and also to the sports originally designed with them in mind. I am concerned about the lack of possibility for selection for those who have had the classification boundaries moved above them to let more able athletes in and other sports where lack of disability is what coaches are looking for rather than talent, ability and determination.
Do we need a change in emphasis?
It all seems to point towards national bodies scouting for the least disabled in a classification (which will always happen) but also the least effort in converting someone already competing in a sport, not realising their minor disability allowed them to be eligible, over helping someone who has a more severe disability but could be a great athlete to learn a new sport from scratch. It now often seems a bit like the “nearly able” are taking over Paralympic sport while the less able struggle to have events to compete in. I don’t believe it is a deliberate change of direction by the Paralympics but more of a slow slide in that direction. The Paralympics has been an awesome movement for positive change in the lives of disabled people, but I think we need to be aware of this slide and evaluate if it is helping to do what the Paralympics was initially set up to do. Is it helping to motivate and inspire to get active, those it was set up to help? If it is not being as effective at this as it should be, do we need to make some changes, as difficult as that may be, to readdress that balance? The success of the Paralympic movement itself should not be underestimated but has this success ultimately distracted us from its original aims?
Wheelchair racer and disability sport athlete,
Director of the Active Hands Company.
July 18th, 2017
In December 2002 José Maldonado, a dedicated husband and father of two, suffered a devastating intra-cerebral hemorrhage; a type of stroke caused by the sudden rupture of an artery within the brain. Unfortunately, like many stroke survivors, he experienced loss of function in both his lower and upper extremities, meaning he needed to use a wheelchair, struggled with aphasia, facial paralysis, and was overwhelmed by outside stimulation such as ambient noise. However, he was determined not to give up on his life, and after seeing what a profound effect his stroke had on his entire family he tried to find ways in which he could improve his quality of life and regain his independence.
Still with little hope, he committed himself to therapy 5 to 6 times a week with sessions lasting anywhere between 4 to 6 hours a day. He began to notice that even his effort to get better had an uplifting effect, not only on himself, but on his family as well. After much self-sacrifice and family encouragement, he began walking again and did not have to rely on his wheelchair or even a walking cane. He was able to resume activities that he once considered impossible such as driving, using a computer and eventually going back to work.
His only problem was, no matter how much he tried, he couldn’t exercise the way he wanted – with both arms. He was unable to open and close his affected hand. So for over 12 years he was limited in terms of the exercises he could do. But that all changed when he discovered Active Hands. Jose explains that his Active Hands gripping aid has, “changed, totally, his life for the better.” With Active Hands he finally can go to a regular gym like anyone else. And he has been able to go to a regular gym every day for two years now. He tells us, he is “in love with his Active Hands!”
José has dedicated himself to counselling individuals and family members, and even helped to establish a Stroke Support Group in Maryland USA. He also works with other stroke support groups throughout Maryland and volunteers for several stroke-related clinical studies. As a dedicated stroke survivor advocate he has worked with several organisations to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Their goal is to bring together communities, health systems, non-profit organisations, federal agencies, and private-sector partners from across the country to fight heart disease and stroke. They have also asked José to participate in their drive by sharing his personal story and knowing the importance of family health history as well as recognising stroke warning signs and symptoms.
He realises he was fortunate with regard to his recovery and tries not a deliver a message of false hope for stroke survivors, but one of encouragement and inspiration. He knows through his own experiences, that stroke victims can and do get better as long as they have encouragement from family and friends and are willing to commit themselves. He says they too will improve and find life after stroke.
His message is simple; “There is life after stroke and it can be a rich and fulfilling life. Don’t give up, it’s not the end – it’s only the beginning.”
In 2012, Brandon Beack was an incredibly active and talented teenager. In addition to showing real talent in music and dancing, Brandon was a highly aspirational gymnast, competing for Western Province in the South African championships. His sights were firmly set on selection for the Junior Olympics and he was training for four hours, six days a week.
However, a bad landing in training left Brandon with a complete Spinal Cord Injury at C6-C7. He was paralysed from the arms down, needing support with many aspects of his daily life and personal care. After ten weeks inpatient rehabilitation, Brandon was discharged and he and his family began to discuss their plans for the future. Determined to keep making progress and to regain his independence, Brandon set out on an intensive program of rehabilitation with a team of experts, including a personal trainer, body builder and his gymnastics coach. After 14 months, Brandon travelled to the Shepherd Centre in Atlanta, USA, where he had advanced rehab 3 hours a day for 6 weeks.
It was during his time at the Shepherd Centre that Brandon first discovered Active Hands gripping aids. Brandon began to use his gripping aids as an integral part of all his rehabilitation work and his Dad, Mark, describes his recovery as, “beyond amazing.” Five years on and Brandon still finds his gripping aids essential in enabling him to reach impressive goals in the gym, including lifting 22.5kg dumbells and even uses them to assist him when using his EKSO walking suit.
Not content in reaching his own ambitious goals, Brandon and his family began to plan how they could help others to gain access to state of the art rehabilitation equipment to enable them to make the kind of progress Brandon had experienced. In 2015 the ‘Walking with Brandon’ Foundation was unveiled and it now offers a ‘therapy and beyond’ program which has seen some impressive outcomes for its patients. Working in partnership with the University of Cape Town’s research department, the foundation is undertaking research into how recovery from spinal cord injury can be assisted by technology such as the EKSO walking suit. Their ultimate dream is for disadvantaged communities to have access to their rehabilitation program and world-class equipment, and to one day have their own facilities that can offer all kinds of therapies, equipment and support to those with neurological disabilities. If you would like to find out more about the work of the ‘Walking with Brandon’ Foundation, click on the image below to visit their website.
As for Brandon’s personal goals, he continues to dream big. He is currently training to represent South Africa in the Tokyo 2020 paralympics as well as completing a BA sports science with a major in sports psychology; a qualification he hopes will enable him to assist further in the work of the foundation. Alongside this, his ultimate goal; to walk again and to, “never give up.”
We were so pleased to hear of Brandon’s story. His determination and dedication, not only to his own rehabilitation, but to aiding that of others is very motivating and we wish the foundation continued success in their work to advance rehabilitation facilities and knowledge in South Africa. Hearing of how Active Hands has enabled people to reach beyond what they thought was possible is equally motivating for us! If you have a story to share about how your active hands aids have opened new opportunities for you, let us know at email@example.com.
At the beginning of the year, Active Hands were excited to be contacted by BBC Business Online who had heard about our business and were interested in meeting us and finding out about the work we do, as a part of a larger theme they were researching on disabled people working in business.
After a bit of a tidy round (and just a bit of worrying about what to wear!), we were ready to welcome the BBC and at the end of January, we met Jeremy Howell who came to our new offices to film an interview.
Jeremy was interested in finding out about our range of products and how they can help disabled people to lead active and independent lives, as well as the challenges and rewards of working in the business sector as a disabled person. It was great to be able to show him our new offices and to talk about a business that we are so passionate about. We loved demonstrating our products and describing the difference they can make to people’s lives. It was especially exciting to be able to demonstrate the pre-production version of our small item gripping aid, which we have been working on for some time now and are looking forward to bringing to the market this spring.
We are pleased that extracts from the interview have been published on the BBC news business page and may be aired as part of a BBC news 24 feature at a later date. To see our interview (and get a sneak preview of our small item gripping aid) find us on the BBC news page here.
Over the past year, we have featured the stories of some incredible athletes; people with a wide range of disabilities who compete at the highest level in their sports and have represented their country at the paralympics. Their stories have motivated and astounded us in equal measure! But sometimes the most encouraging stories are those of quieter achievements; regaining independence, arriving home from rehab and returning to daily lives after a traumatic injury.
In 2011, Jerod was on holiday with his family. Excited to get into the ocean, he ran down the beach and dived in unfamiliar water, striking a rock and breaking his C5 vertebrae. With no trunk control, no sensation from the chest down and very limited arm movement, Jerod was barely able to control a power wheelchair and was told he might never feed himself. “It’s affected nearly every aspect of my life,” explained Jerod, when he wrote to tell us of the difference rehab and Active Hands gripping aids have made to his recovery.
Jerod was in rehab for 4 months as an inpatient and upon discharge was determined to find a specialist team who together would push him to “achieve more than [he] was lead to believe was possible”. Embarking on a packed schedule of OT, pool therapy, fine motor work and weight training amongst other sessions, Jerod’s determination has turned into some impressive progress.
Whilst at Craig Rehabiliation in Colorado, Jerod was introduced to Active Hands gripping aids and, combined with an equally determined OT named Ryan Bird, they helped his rehab to really turn a corner. Ryan explains, “Jerod was able to bring a pair of Active Hands home with him and we have used them in his rehab every day for the last five years. He has progressed from lifting 1lb weights to 30lbs in around four years. The progress he has made has been truly remarkable.” This incredible progress has ensured Jerod has felt benefits not only on his arms but his trunk too. “We couldn’t have done it without your product and for that we are forever grateful,” says Ryan.
Now a participant in an outpatient program under Dr. Harkema of Louisville, Jerod is hoping to push the boundaries of science forward by showing that hard work and dedication can make measurable differences to the quality of life of those with spinal cord injuries. To get a feel for the impressive level of hard work Jerod has committed to over the past six years and the amazing progress he has made, check out a video made by his OT, Ryan, here. If you would like to know more, you can get in touch with Jerod via facebook, or go to The Walk On Foundation.
Jerod describes the rest of his life as his ongoing ‘rehab’ and is determined to “never give up”. He explains, “I believe with hard work, you’ll amaze yourself at how far you’ll go. Active Hands have helped keep me on track towards the goals I have for myself. Not only have they made me exponentially stronger, the secondary benefits like overall wellbeing and confidence are immeasurable.”
Whether your gym sessions are part of an intense training program for high-level sport, or more about individual goals and an improved sense of wellbeing and confidence, a determined attitude and a little help from Active Hands can clearly go a long way! Good luck with all your fitness goals this year and don’t forget, we love hearing how you are all getting on so feel free to get in touch or send us some pictures of your workouts!
This week began an exciting new chapter for Active Hands – we moved into our new office at Rumbush Farm in Solihull! The new office is set in the countryside, but handily located just off the M42, perfect for both the local dispatch team and for those of us who travel from Leamington/Warwick.
Up until now our business has been run from our homes but have now out-grown this solution, especially as we have expanded into stocking products from other companies, bringing together hand function solutions for a wide range of activities.
The new office gives us opportunity to meet up together and work side by side. This gives us a chance to discus the everyday running of the business without having to have specific meetings – and will hopefully reduce the amount of emails that we send between each other!
We also have access to meeting rooms where we can meet up with other companies, such as the Kandu group, and the all important kitchen area for making tea!
As well as a desk-based area we have a new dispatch area where customer orders can be put together before shipping. This new area has plenty of room to collate and package items, as well as having a huge shelving area – giving easy access to all of our products. Hopefully this will make life easier for the dispatch team.
There is also a warehouse area where we can keep our overflow stock, exhibition equipment and all those bits and bobs that are not needed on a daily basis.
We have made a great start at settling into the new office and the staff from Admin Business Solutions, who are based in the same office space, have been very helpful in getting us up and running and made us feel very welcome. We just need to make a few small home improvements, like getting pictures up on the wall, and we will be all set for another productive year at Active Hands.
Our new address is:
The Active Hands Company
Unit 4, Rumbush Farm,
322A Rumbush Lane,
No Time Like The Present
Over the last few days we have shown just a few of the possibilities open to you if you go to the gym with the right attitude and the right set of gripping aids! On top of the exercises listed here, are scores of others that can be undertaken and worked into your fitness routine, it is all about knowing what you want to get out of it and finding out what works best for you.
With September’s Paralympics still fresh in people’s minds and the hunt already on for potential stars of the Tokyo Games, 2017 is an ideal year to renew those gym memberships, get involved in sport and see where it takes you!
Below is a video made by Active Hands founder Rob Smith, in which he explores the different exercises and machines open to wheelchair users at the gym. In it you will find many of the exercises mentioned here, as well as a few new ones; with both verbal and visual demonstrations to go with them, so it’s definitely worth a watch!
This is the end of our series on New Year Exercises. We’d love to see how you have got on so please share your comments and videos with us by posting them on our page or sending them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Activity: Rowing Machine
Used in conjunction with: Looped Exercise Aids
Beneficial for: Increasing strength in arms, shoulders and upper torso; increasing stamina and cardio; overall fitness
I find the rowing machine to be a particularly useful piece of equipment and one that can actually be used from a wheelchair. The seat and slider can be unclipped from the front of the machine and moved out of the way with relative ease, leaving you free to pull up to the front of the rower, put your brakes on and get started. Similarly to the handbike, the rowing machine provides a great fitness and cardio-based workout, whilst continuously working the muscles in your upper limbs. Another benefit for wheelchair users is that the backwards pulling motion works in contrast to the forwards pushing motion of a wheelchair, which strengthens the back of the shoulders and helps prevent them from rounding, a common problem for long time wheelchair users. The Looped Exercise Aids can easily slip over each side of the rowing handle, meaning you don’t need to worry about maintaining your grip as you pull. I also find it helpful to fasten a weightlifting belt around my stomach and the back of my wheelchair to support my core and fix my torso in position when I use the machine. Rowing machines are great for anyone involved in sports that require upper body strength and stamina, such as tennis, basketball and rugby players, and in particular swimmers and rowers, as the motions can perfectly mimic pulling an oar or an arm through water.
Used in conjunction with: General Purpose Gripping Aid
Beneficial for: Increasing strength in arms; increasing stamina and cardio; overall fitness
Static handbike machines are great for wheelchair users and those who struggle with treadmills or regular exercise bikes, as they allow you to work up a sweat, get a good, fitness-based workout and burn off some calories – especially handy after the Christmas period! The removable seat means that you can use this machine from your wheelchair and the varying resistance levels and programs mean each use can be tailored to fit that day’s workout; whether you want to go long distance on low resistance, short distance on high resistance or have the resistance vary throughout. And if you struggle to maintain a solid grip on the handles as you pedal, then strap your hand(s) in with the General Purpose Gripping Aid(s); although be advised, you will need help if attaching both hands. Gym handbikes are ideal for anyone involved in a sport that requires stamina and endurance, and are a perfect solution for track racers and handcyclists, if weather conditions prevent you from getting outside.
Activity: Cable & pulley machines
Used in conjunction with: D-Ring Aids
Beneficial for: Increasing strength and muscle tone in arms and shoulders; maintaining suppleness and flexibility of joints; increasing stamina
Cable and pulley machines are ideal for wheelchair users as you can often set them up at whatever height you want and do the exercises straight from your chair. The great thing about these machines is that they are designed for multiple exercises, as opposed to one exercise per machine, which is often the case with the weights machines mentioned previously. With the adjustable height and freedom to undertake numerous exercises, the cable and pulley machines give you the chance to completely customise your workout. You can work on various muscles using a variety of exercises, such as: tricep raises, tricep extensions, diagonal pulls, inward and outward cuff rotations, straight arm lifts, bicep curls, shoulder raises, lateral raises and many more. If you want to concentrate on strength and muscle building then use heavier weights with lower reps; if you want to concentrate on stamina then use lighter weights with higher reps. These machines are also great for maintaining healthy joints, something wheelchair users are prone to having issues with, especially with their rotator cuffs. And if, like myself, there are some exercises where you struggle to hold onto the grip provided, then simply unhook the grip, pop a pair of D-Ring Aids around your wrists and attach them directly to the karabiner, using one at a time or both together, depending on the exercise. The cable and pulley machines are a favourite of track racers and swimmers, as they are able to use the machines to mimic the downward thrust of a wheelchair push or the straight armed push of an arm through the water.